Home | Glossary

Glossary

2


2FA

See two-factor authentication.
More: Two-Factor Authentication

A


ACC

See ARK Community Committee.
More: ARK Community Committee

Account

See wallet address.
More: Wallet Address

ACES

See ARK Contract Execution Services.
More: ARK Contract Execution Services

Active Delegate

A Delegate that has received enough Voting Power to participate in the consensus mechanism.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Voting Power, Delegate

ADAN

Association pour le Développement des Actifs Numériques. Nonprofit governed by French 1901 Law of which ARK.io is a founding member.
More: ARK.io

Address

See wallet address.
More: Wallet Address

AIP

See ARK Improvement Proposal.
More: ARK Improvement Proposal

APN

See ARK Public Network.
More: ARK Public Network

Application-Specific Chain

Blockchain designed to run only one particular application.
More: Blockchain

ARK API

Standardized Application Programming Interface used for interacting with the ARK Public Network and ARK-based chains.
More: ARK Public Network, ARK-Based Chain

ARK Blockchain Framework

Open source codebase featuring ARK Core, Generic Transaction Interface, ARK Utilities, ARK SDKs, and other tools that developers can use to implement Blockchain technology.
More: Generic Transaction Interface, ARK Utilities, Open Source, Blockchain, ARK Core, Codebase, SDK

ARK Blockchain Platform

Suite of products and open-source projects that contain all tools necessary to build, customize, launch, maintain, and utilize an ARK-based chain.
More: ARK-Based Chain

ARK Commander

Deprecated shell interface for managing an ARK node, and has since been replaced by ARK Core CLI.
More: ARK Core CLI, Node

ARK Community Committee

Group of ARK community members who collaborate on projects that do not require coding. Members are paid in ARK and collaborate on the ARK Discord.

ARK Community Fund

Community-run fund in ARK used for a variety of projects. ARK.io does not run the fund and applicants can submit proposals for funding at ARKCommunity.Fund
More: ARK.io

ARK Contract Execution Services

First successful cross-chain implementation using ARK technology in Fall of 2017. Uses encoded listeners, intermediary nodes, and SmartBridge Technology to facilitate cross-chain swaps.
More: Intermediary Node, Encoded Listener, Cross-chain, SmartBridge

ARK Core

A lightweight and modular codebase that functions as the base component of the entire ARK Ecosystem, authored in TypeScript.
More: ARK Ecosystem, Codebase

ARK Core CLI

Command-line interface used in managing an ARK node. Simple commands allow for starting, stopping and restarting services, along with managing snapshots.
More: Snapshot, Node

ARK Core Docker

All-in-one build of ARK Core that can deploy using the Docker service.
More: ARK Core

ARK Crypto Podcast

Podcast residing at Podcast.ARK.io with weekly episodes about everything ARK every Friday.
More: ARK.io

ARK Cryptoasset

Cryptocurrency which resides on the ARK Public Network. ARK can be sent anywhere in the world with an eight second block time and managed with a wallet application.
More: ARK Public Network, Cryptocurrency, Block Time, Wallet

ARK Deployer CLI

Deprecated first generation of Deployer, which used only a command-line interface to customize and deploy custom chains. Has since been replaced by Deployer.
More: Deployer

ARK Desktop Wallet

A multi-functional application written from scratch using VueJS and TailwindCSS and implementing the latest Electron framework. Compatible with Ledger Nano hardware wallet.
More: Hardware Wallet, Framework, Ledger

ARK Development & Security Bounty Program

This program awards community developers with ARK for contributing to project development, documentation repositories, or security vulnerability disclosures.

ARK Ecosystem

The collection of products, people, businesses, and soveriegn Blockchains that are all utilizing ARK technology.
More: Blockchain

ARK Ecosystem SCIC

Legal registered business entity in France as of Fall 2017. Responsible for assisting in maintenance of open source projects as well as building products that utilize the open source projects.
More: Open Source

ARK Explorer

Block explorer allowing users to view the latest transactions and blocks, search for wallet addresses and transactions, view wallet address rankings, and monitor Delegate activity.
More: Block Explorer, Wallet Address, Transaction, Delegate

ARK Grants Program

ARK Grants is a program funded with 1 million ARK designed to incentivize developers to build innovative new projects using the ARK Blockchain Framework.
More: ARK Blockchain Framework

ARK Improvement Proposal

Document outlining a proposed change to ARK on the protocol level. AIPs can be generated by anyone and published on the ARK GitHub.
More: Protocol, AIP

ARK Logic

Alternative to smart contracts allowing developers to use ARK’s Generic Transaction Interface to build ARK Smart Transactions in the common language TypeScript.
More: Generic Transaction Interface, ARK Smart Transactions

ARK Messenger

Proof-of-Concept developed within the ARK Grants Program to showcase the use case of decentralized messaging using ARK technology. Has an open source codebase.
More: ARK Grants Program, Proof-of-Concept, Decentralized, Open Source, Codebase, Use Case

ARK Migrator

Component of the ARK Blockchain Platform designed to facilitate token migration from Ethereum’s ERC-20 standard to a standalone ARK-based chain.
More: ARK Blockchain Platform, ARK-Based Chain, Token

ARK Mobile Wallet

Hybrid application that uses the same codebase for Android and iOS to help coordinate development across platforms. Supports multiple transaction types.
More: Transaction, Codebase

ARK Pay

Proof-of-Concept designed to showcase a module that assists users in online checkout using ARK or any ARK-based coin. Contains a user interface and listens for payments.
More: Proof-of-Concept, Module, Coin

ARK Public Network

Live implementation of ARK technology and runs the ARK Cryptoasset. 51 Active Delegates secure the network, which has been in operation since March 21, 2017.
More: Active Delegate, ARK Cryptoasset, Network

ARK Scooters

Proof-of-Concept built through the ARK Grants Program that showcases ARK technology as used in an IoT application. Has an open source codebase.
More: ARK Grants Program, Proof-of-Concept, Open Source, Codebase

ARK Smart Transactions

These are the result from developers using ARK’s Generic Transaction Interface. Discrete transaction types offer more stability and security over other Turing-complete solutions.
More: Generic Transaction Interface, Transaction

ARK Snapshot Manager

Component of ARK Core that handles management of backups of the ledger within a node. Backup, rollback, and restore the ledger using simple commands in ARK Core CLI.
More: ARK Core CLI, ARK Core, Rollback, Ledger, Node

ARK Team

Dozens of Blockchain experts and enthusiasts around the world who work for the ARK.io business entity.
More: Blockchain, ARK.io, Round

ARK Test Suite

Utilizes Jest Framework which is used by Facebook to test all of their JavaScript code including React applications. Jest is also used by Airbnb, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, and Oculus.
More: Framework

ARK Utilities

Separate library providing common functions for working with data and performing frequent tasks while also increasing performance across the ARK Core, up to 1200% in some cases.
More: ARK Core

ARK Whitepaper

Overarching document describing ARK’s vision, projects, products and strategies.

ARK-Based Chain

Any Blockchain developed and launched using ARK technology.
More: Blockchain

ARK-Powered Blockchain

See ARK-based chain.
More: ARK-Based Chain

ARK.io

Alternate name for ARK Ecosystem SCIC.
More: ARK Ecosystem SCIC

ARKTippr

Community-run crypto tipbot for Reddit allowing any Reddit user to give and receive tips in ARK or ARK-based coins.
More: Crypto, Coin

Arktoshi

Smallest unit of the ARK Cryptoasset that equates to 0.00000001 ARK. Similar to Satoshi, the smallest unit of account for Bitcoin, named after its anonymous founder(s) Satoshi Nakamoto.
More: ARK Cryptoasset, Account, Coin

Asymmetric Cryptography

Encryption method used by ARK and most other cryptoassets, where different private keys are used for encryption and decryption, as opposed to symmetric cryptography where one private key is used.
More: Cryptography, Cryptoasset, Private Key

Atomic Swap

Specialized cross-chain transaction between two independent Blockchains where data or value is exchanged in a decentralized environment.
More: Decentralized, Cross-chain, Transaction, Blockchain

Attack Vector

Method by which bad actors can harm or otherwise adversely affect a Blockchain network. Also refers to any method by which bad actors can steal or otherwise gain control of cryptoassets.
More: Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Bad Actor, Network

B


Bad Actor

Party that wishes to manipulate, attack, or otherwise harm a Blockchain network.
More: Blockchain, Network

BFT

See Byzantine Fault Tolerance.
More: Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Bloat

A slowdown in performance on a Blockchain due to too many different operations occuring at once.
More: Blockchain

Block Explorer

See ARK Explorer.
More: ARK Explorer

Block Height

Integer used to determine the specific order of a block in a Blockchain. If a chain contains 10 blocks, the oldest block has a height of 0 and the newest block has a height of 9.
More: Blockchain

Block ID

Alphanumeric string used to uniquely identify each block in a Blockchain.
More: Blockchain

Block Propagation

The process of a newly generated and valid block being distributed to all other nodes on a Blockchain network.
More: Blockchain, Network, Node

Block Reward

Payment of a cryptoasset from the network to the miner or validator that creates a new block and adds it to the Blockchain. Usually generated as new coins that are added to circulation.
More: Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Validator, Network, Coin

Block Size

How large each block of the Blockchain is, usually denoted in megabytes.
More: Blockchain

Block Time

How long each block takes to be added to the Blockchain. The block time of Bitcoin aims to be 10 minutes, and for the ARK Public Network 8 seconds.
More: ARK Public Network, Block Time, Blockchain, Coin

Blockchain

A distributed, immutable ledger where identical copies are maintained in multiple locations known as nodes. A consensus mechanism determines the process of how blocks are added.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Ledger, Node

Blockchain Trilemma

Refers to the zero-sum relationship between scalability, security, and decentralization when designing a Blockchain. Optimizing for any one property usually results in tradeoffs in the others.
More: Decentralization, Blockchain

Bounty

An award paid via a cryptoasset for contributing to the codebase, disclosing security vulnerabilities, discovering bugs, or some other effort.
More: Cryptoasset, Codebase

Bridgechain

Deprecated term for an ARK-based chain.
More: ARK-Based Chain

Burn

Removing tokens or coins from the circulating supply by either sending them to a provably unusable address or removing them as part of the consensus mechanism.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Circulating Supply, Address, Token, Coin

Byzantine Fault Tolerance

The ability of a system to withstand failures of its components. Components of the system may discuss among each other and reach consensus on the nature of a faulty component.
More: Consensus

Byzantine General’s Problem

Problem relating to consensus where members of a group must come to an agreement on a successful strategy while knowing that some members may aim to sabotage the group.
More: Consensus

C


Centralized

Describes a single point of failure or control of a system or service. Can refer to a server, person, business, or organization.

Centralized Intermediary

A go-between between two parties or systems that also acts as a single point of failure or control over the activities between the two parties or systems.

Chain Analysis

Act of monitoring activity on the ledger to determine the nature of said activity, and in some cases, who is participating in the activity.
More: Ledger

Circulating Supply

Total amount of coins or tokens currently existing on the network. Does not include future supply which may be generated nor any supply held in genesis address or other pre-circulation fund.
More: Genesis Address, Network, Token, Coin

Closed Source

Codebase not exposed to the public for general use.
More: Codebase

Codebase

Collection of modules, applications, and libraries that combine to fulfill specific application requirements.
More: Module

Coin

A cryptoasset that acts as the native currency to a Blockchain. Often provides the incentive to node operators for running the public network, and/or enables governance functions.
More: Public Network, Node Operator, Cryptoasset, Blockchain

Coin Age

Length of time since coins in an address has moved to another address. In some cases, the age of all coins in an address resets even if only a portion of coins moved to a new address.
More: Address, Coin

Cold Storage

Method by which cryptoassets are protected from certain attack vectors by residing offline. Includes both electronic and non-electronic methods.
More: Attack Vector, Cryptoasset

Cold Wallet

Application or device used for cold storage.
More: Cold Storage

Colocation Site

Physical location where servers are housed. Shelter, power, cooling, and Internet connections are provided. Customers, rather than site operators, own and maintain the servers themselves.

Config

See JSON configuration.
More: JSON Configuration

Confirmation Time

See block time.
More: Block Time

Consensus

General agreement between node operators on the state of the Blockchain and/or ledger.
More: Node Operator, Blockchain, Ledger

Consensus Mechanism

Method by which consensus is reached, which can vary drastically based on the protocol. Examples include Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake, and Delegated Proof-of-Stake.
More: Delegated Proof-of-Stake, Proof-of-Stake, Proof-of-Work, Consensus, Protocol

Consortium Blockchain

Specialized Blockchain where a predetermined group of people or entities are responsible for consensus. Participating in consensus usually requires consortium approval.
More: Blockchain, Consensus

Contentious Fork

A chain split where both Blockchains have the same history of transactions up to a certain point. Usually results in some portion of the users and node operators switching to the new chain.
More: Node Operator, Transaction, Blockchain

Core Plugin

Module that can extend the ARK Core to fulfill a specific use case.
More: ARK Core, Use Case, Module

Cross-chain

Describes activity that takes place between two independent Blockchains.
More: Blockchain

Crypto

See cryptoasset.
More: Cryptoasset

Cryptoasset

General term describing any type of token or coin.
More: Token, Coin

Cryptoconomy

Informal term referring to all economic activity occuring within the entire Blockchain community and industry.
More: Blockchain

Cryptocurrency

General term describing any coin and certain tokens. Usually refers to a cryptoasset with a primary use case of peer-to-peer value transfer, but can posess other properties as well.
More: Peer-to-Peer, Cryptoasset, Use Case, Token, Coin

Cryptography

Field in which readable information is converted into unintelligible information and vice versa.

Cryptosphere

See Cryptoverse.
More: Cryptoverse

Cryptoverse

Informal term referring to all people, entities, businesses, projects, and protocols within the entire Blockchain community and industry.
More: Blockchain, Protocol

Custodial Wallet

Wallet that transfers custody of a cryptoasset to another party for safekeeping. The primary owner retains ownership, but requires permission from an intermediary to access funds.
More: Cryptoasset, Wallet

Custom Transactions

See ARK Smart Transactions.
More: ARK Smart Transactions

D


DAO

See Decentralized Autonomous Organization.
More: Decentralized Autonomous Organization

Database

Component of ARK Core that stores and serves transaction data within a node.
More: Transaction, ARK Core, Node

Decentralization

The removal of central authority and single points of failure to produce a system that cannot fail due to the failure of any one component or minority set of components.

Decentralized

See decentralization.
More: Decentralization

Decentralized Autonomous Organization

A collective of people and/or entities that operate as a single organization, but with no central authority behind it. Usually enabled by a protocol and/or cryptocurrency for governance.
More: Cryptocurrency, Protocol

Decentralized Exchange

An exchange that is decentralized, where a user interface is provided for trading cryptoassets that interacts either directly with discrete Blockchains, or with a protocol that does such.
More: Decentralized, Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Protocol

Decentralized Finance

An umbrella term for a variety of financial applications in cryptocurrency or Blockchain geared toward disrupting financial intermediaries.
More: Cryptocurrency, Blockchain

DeFi

Decentralized Finance.
More: Decentralized Finance

Deflation

A reduction in circulating supply of a cryptoasset, either by burning or having coins or tokens lost forever.
More: Circulating Supply, Cryptoasset, Token, Burn, Coin

Deflationary Token

A token with a fixed total supply, where the supply can only go down due to burning or having coins or tokens lost forever.
More: Total Supply, Token, Burn, Coin

Delegate

Person or group of people responsible for maintaining the Blockchain and adding new blocks, in the Delegated Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism.
More: Delegated Proof-of-Stake, Consensus Mechanism, Blockchain

Delegate Registration

Transaction type that registers a wallet address as a Delegate, such that the wallet address is given a Delegate name and becomes the destination for coins minted by that Delegate Node.
More: Wallet Address, Transaction, Delegate, Coin, Node

Delegate Resignation

Transaction type executed by a Delegate that ejects them from active status and prevents wallet addresses from voting for that Delegate in the future.
More: Wallet Address, Transaction, Delegate

Delegate Server

A server responsible for running an instance of ARK Core where a Delegate has been registered through Delegate Registration.
More: Delegate Registration, ARK Core, Delegate

Delegated Proof-of-Stake

Consensus mechanism where Delegates voted in by coin holders are reponsible for maintaining the ledger, adding blocks, and generating new coins.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Delegate, Ledger, Coin, Vote

Delegatee

See Delegate.
More: Delegate

Delegator

See voter.
More: Voter

Deployer

The simplest way to create a Blockchain. Product of ARK.io and used to create, customize, and deploy standalone Blockchains.
More: Blockchain, ARK.io

Desktop Wallet

Open source project of ARK.io and used as an interface for interacting with ARK networks and other popular Blockchain networks. Launches instantly and compatible with hardware wallet devices.
More: Hardware Wallet, Open Source, Blockchain, Network, ARK.io

Development Network

A multi-node testnet that can represent real-world network performance of a Blockchain. Reserved for testing purposes only, and any cryptoassets on this network have no real-world value.
More: Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Network, Testnet, Node

Devnet

Informal term for Development Network.
More: Development Network

DEX

See Decentralized Exchange.
More: Decentralized Exchange

Digital Ocean

VPS provider that is integrated into Deployer.
More: Deployer, VPS

Distributed Ledger Technology

Commonly referred to a Blockchain technology which does not employ a cryptoasset to incentivize node operators. Used mainly in private enterprise applications and some consortium Blockchains.
More: Consortium Blockchain, Node Operator, Cryptoasset, Blockchain

DLT

See Distributed Ledger Technology.
More: Distributed Ledger Technology

Double Spend Attack

Attack vector where a bad actor causes a reorg allowing the same coins or tokens to be spent twice.
More: Attack Vector, Bad Actor, Reorg, Token, Coin

DPoS

See Delegated Proof-of-Stake.
More: Delegated Proof-of-Stake

Dynamic Fees

Fee structure in which the user can set the amount to pay the node operators to execute a transaction. Fees rise and fall based on network activity.
More: Node Operator, Transaction, Network, Fee

E


Elliptic Curve Cryptography

An approach to public key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.
More: Cryptography, Public Key

Encoded Listener

A service that crawls Blockchain data looking for tasks to perform. Component of ACES.
More: Blockchain, ACES

Encryption Password

Alphanumeric password set by the user to encrypt and secure a passphrase, mnemonic, seed, or other type of private key. Does not unlock Blockchain data directly, instead exposes the key.
More: Private Key, Blockchain, Passphrase, Mnemonic, Key

Entity Declaration Transaction Type

Transaction type as of ARK Core v2.7 that allows people or organizations to register data on the ARK Public Network via IPFS. Critical component of MarketSquare.
More: ARK Public Network, MarketSquare, Transaction, ARK Core, IPFS

F


Faucet

Web service that periodically awards cryptocurrency to visitors either for free or in exchange for a small task such as viewing an ad or visiting a website.
More: Cryptocurrency

Fee

Small charge in exchange for executing a transaction to the Blockchain network. Usually collected by node operators, but can be split between various parties based on tokenomics.
More: Node Operator, Transaction, Blockchain, Tokenomics, Network

Finality

Property of a Blockchain network that determines how well the consensus mechanism can render new blocks immutable.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Blockchain, Network

FinTech

Condensed term for Financial Technology.

Forger

Deprecated term for Delegate Node.
More: Delegate, Node

Forging

Deprecated term for validating. See validate.
More: Validate

Forging Delegate

Deprecated. See Active Delegate Node.
More: Active Delegate, Node

Fork

In code, refers to a clone of a codebase in a new code repository. In networks, refers to an accidental, intentional or contentious chain split or protocol upgrade. See hard fork and soft fork.
More: Hard Fork, Soft Fork, Codebase, Protocol, Network

Fork Management

Process by which accidental forks are prevented or discarded in favor of the correct, prevailing chain.
More: Fork

Framework

See codebase.
More: Codebase

Fungibility

A property of sound money referring to how interchangeable each unit or coin of a currency is.
More: Coin

G


Generic Transaction Interface

Open source tool allowing developers to create ARK Smart Transactions authored in TypeScript. Alternative to smart contracts.
More: ARK Smart Transactions, Open Source

Genesis Address

In stakable cryptoassets, refers to the initial address where any initial supply is stored, before being distributed to other addresses.
More: Initial Supply, Cryptoasset, Address

Genesis Block

The very first block in a Blockchain.
More: Blockchain

Genesis Delegate

In ARK DPoS, refers to the intitial virtual Delegates which simulate consensus within the Genesis Node, before Active Delegates take over.
More: Active Delegate, Genesis Node, Consensus, Delegate, DPoS

Genesis Node

When deploying an ARK-based chain, this is the initial node of the Blockchain where Genesis Delegates operate.
More: Genesis Delegate, ARK-Based Chain, Blockchain, Node

GTI

See Generic Transaction Interface.
More: Generic Transaction Interface

H


Hackathon

Competition among computer science teams to create deployed projects within a set time limit. Usually hosted by universities, corporations, or open source projects.
More: Open Source

Hard Fork

A chain split resulting in two resulting Blockchains, where their ledgers are identical only up to a certain point. Can either be a contentious fork or a protocol upgrade replacing old node code.
More: Contentious Fork, Blockchain, Protocol, Ledger, Node

Hardware Wallet

Physical electronic device with the role of securing cryptocurrency offline in cold storage. Helps to prevent certain attack vectors.
More: Cryptocurrency, Attack Vector, Cold Storage

Hash

As a verb, refers to performing a function on input data of any length to produce an output of equal length. As a noun, refers to the resulting data output of the function.

Hash Collision

Situation that occurs when two pieces of unique input data result in the same hashed output value.
More: Hash

Hashed Time Locked Contract

Set of transaction types that permit a designated party to lock funds, and a second party to claim the funds. A refund function is available after a set time limit.
More: Transaction

Hierarchial Deterministic Wallet

Digital wallet that automatically generates a hierarchical tree-like structure of key pairs, addressing the problem of the user having to generate them on their own.
More: Key Pair, Address, Wallet

Hot Wallet

Wallet with access to the Internet, where private keys are stored online and not in cold storage.
More: Cold Storage, Private Key, Wallet

I


Inflation

Rate of increase (expressed as a percentage of total supply) of a cryptoasset.
More: Total Supply, Cryptoasset

Initial Supply

Quantity of a cryptoasset that exists as of the Genesis Block.
More: Genesis Block, Cryptoasset

Interchain Communication

See interoperability.
More: Interoperability

Intermediary Node

A node that acts as a centralized intermediary.
More: Centralized Intermediary, Node

Interoperability

Ability for multiple independent Blockchains with unique ledgers to communicate with each other and exchange value and data.
More: Blockchain, Ledger

InterPlanetary File System

Decentralized file storage protocol using Blockchain technology.
More: Decentralized, Blockchain, Protocol

IPFS

See InterPlanetary File System.
More: InterPlanetary File System

J


JSON Configuration

File or set of parameters that defines the properties of a new ARK-based Blockchain.
More: Blockchain, DeFi

K


Key

Alphanumeric string used in cryptography to either encrypt or decrypt data.
More: Cryptography

Key Pair

In public key cryptography, refers to the pair of alphanumeric keys with a public key for encryption and private key for decryption.
More: Cryptography, Private Key, Public Key, Key

L


Ledger

Method of accounting for transactions that occur on a Blockchain.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Account

Ledger Nano S

Hardware wallet used for securing cryptocurrency to minimize attack vectors. Compatible with ARK Desktop Wallet.
More: ARK Desktop Wallet, Hardware Wallet, Cryptocurrency, Attack Vector

Light Client

Desktop or mobile application that does not require storing the entire Blockchain to function. Results in quick launch of these applications without any sync requirement.
More: Blockchain

Lite Client

See light client.
More: Light Client

M


M of N

Method of multisignature where out of N wallet addresses, M must sign a transaction before it passes the multisignature protocol and gets sent to the transaction pool.
More: Transaction Pool, Multisignature, Wallet Address, Transaction, Protocol

Magistrate 2.0

Module of ARK Core that handles the Entity Declaration Transaction Type. Critical component of MarketSquare.
More: Entity Declaration Transaction Type, MarketSquare, ARK Core, Module

Mainnet

Informal term for Public Network.
More: Public Network

Market Cap

Informal term for market capitalization.
More: Market Capitalization

Market Capitalization

Total value of all coins or tokens in curculation for a specific cryptoasset, usually denoted in USD.
More: Cryptoasset, Token, Coin

MarketSquare

The new home for the decentralized Web and product of ARK.io.
More: Decentralized, ARK.io

Max Supply

Informal term for maximum supply.
More: Maximum Supply

Maximum Supply

Theoretical limit for the total supply of a specific cryptoasset.
More: Total Supply, Cryptoasset

Mempool

Staging area for unconfirmed transactions in the node software.
More: Transaction, Node

Micropayments

Small transactions enabled by a cryptoasset. Can range from fractions of a cent to a few dollars depending on circumstance.
More: Cryptoasset, Transaction

Mnemonic

Multi-word phrase that unlocks access to a wallet address. Usually 12, 13, or 24 words separated by space characters, and should be secured and never shared.
More: Wallet Address

Mnemonic Passphrase

See mnemonic.
More: Mnemonic

Mnemonic Seed

See mnemonic.
More: Mnemonic

Mobile Wallet

Application for mobile devices that allows users to interface with Blockchains, execute transactions, and check balances.
More: Transaction, Blockchain

Module

Component of ARK Core serving a critical core function.
More: ARK Core

Multipayment

Deprecated term for Multitransfer.
More: Multitransfer

Multisig

Informal term for Multisignature.
More: Multisignature

Multisignature

Specialized transaction type involving multiple wallet addresses that sign transactions as a group.
More: Wallet Address, Transaction

Multitransfer

Specialized transaction type involving one wallet address signing a single transaction with multiple recipients.
More: Wallet Address, Transaction

Multiway Deadlock

Network condition where consensus cannot be reached due to no particular group achieving a majority. In DPoS, this is address through total Active Delegate slots being a prime number.
More: Active Delegate, Consensus, Address, Network, DPoS

N


Network

Collection of nodes that communicate with one another to form a system.
More: Node

NFT

See Non-Fungible Token.
More: Non-Fungible Token

Node

A software instance on a Blockchain network responsible for participating in consensus, maintaining the ledger, servicing or relaying transactions, or all of the above.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Consensus, Network, Ledger

Node Operator

Person or group of people responsible for maintaining a node.
More: Node

Node Package Manager

Web service that allows JavaScript and TypeScript packages to be published online.

NodeJS

Runtime engine used for ARK products and open source projects.
More: Open Source

Nodem

Simplest way to manage Blockchain nodes from within a web browser. Product of ARK.io.
More: Blockchain, ARK.io, Node

Non-Custodial Wallet

Wallet that does not transfer custody of a cryptoasset to another party for safekeeping. The primary owner of funds retains custody the entire time they are using the wallet.
More: Cryptoasset, Wallet

Non-Fungible Token

Type of indivisible cryptoasset representing a unique coin or token that exists nowhere else on the network.
More: Cryptoasset, Network, Token, Coin

NPM

See Node Package Manager.
More: Node Package Manager

O


Off-Chain

Activity that does not involve a transaction on a Blockchain.
More: Transaction, Blockchain

Offline Storage

See cold storage.
More: Cold Storage

On-Chain

Activity occuring as a part of the Blockchain, represented by transactions on the network and updates to the ledger.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Network, Ledger

Open Source

Code that is publicly available and usable via special licenses.

Oracle

An intermediary between off-chain and on-chain data.
More: Off-Chain, On-Chain

Oracle Problem

Conflict in security, authenticity, and trustbetween third-party oracles and the trustless execution of a Blockchain network.
More: Blockchain, Network, Oracle

P


P2P

See Peer-to-Peer.
More: Peer-to-Peer

Passphrase

See mnemonic.
More: Mnemonic

Peer

A server-node participating in a peer-to-peer network.
More: Peer-to-Peer, Network, Node

Peer-to-Peer

Protocol that uses replicable nodes with verifiable data rather than centralized servers and data centers.
More: Centralized, Protocol, Node

Permissioned Blockchain

Blockchain that may place some restrictive conditions on how transactions execute, or who participates in consensus.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Consensus

Permissionless

Describes the ability to participate in consensus or execute transactions without approval, provided any fee is paid.
More: Transaction, Consensus, Fee

Personally Identifiable Information

Describes sensitive personal information, as described in GDPR guidelines.

PII

See Personally Identifiable Information.
More: Personally Identifiable Information

Platform SDK

The simplest way for developers to interface with 10+ popular Blockchain technologies including Bitcoin and Ethereum.
More: Blockchain, Coin

Plugin

Component that extends either an application or Blockchain core software.
More: Blockchain

PoC

See Proof-of-Concept.
More: Proof-of-Concept

Point. Click. Blockchain.

Prior slogan for ARK.io, since replaced by ‘The Simplest Way to Blockchain.’
More: Blockchain, ARK.io

PoS

See Proof-of-Stake.
More: Proof-of-Stake

PoW

See Proof-of-Work.
More: Proof-of-Work

Powered by ARK

Describes a network, service, or business that implements ARK technology.
More: Network

Private Blockchain

Describes either a network that requires access to view its data, or a permissioned Blockchain.
More: Permissioned Blockchain, Network

Private Key

Sensitive half of a key pair used to descrypt data encrypted by the public key. Usually hashed to derive a mnemonic, as is the case in networks using BIP-39.
More: Public Key, Key Pair, Mnemonic, Network, Hash

Proof-of-Concept

A live implementation of technology created to showcase its capabilities.

Proof-of-Stake

Consensus mechanism where all coin holders enter a lottery to add new blocks and receive new coins, weighted by the holdings within each address. Consumes far less electricity than PoW.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Address, Coin, PoW

Proof-of-Work

Consensus mechanism where miners race to solve complex mathematical problems, adding new blocks and generating new coins. Miners consume large quantities of electricity to do this.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Coin

Protocol

Method by which different nodes of a network communicate with each other.
More: Network, Node

Protocol-Agnostic

In interoperability, refers to a protocol that can function across the disparate protocols of each network in question.
More: Interoperability, Protocol, Network

Protocol-Specific

In interoperability, refers to a protocol that requires identical protocols within each network in question in order to function.
More: Interoperability, Protocol, Network

Protokol

Enterprise services subsidiary of ARK.io. Enables organizations to solve real business challenges through the power of custom Blockchain solutions.
More: Blockchain, ARK.io

Provably Fair

Describes a public method by which the randomness of a process can be confirmed.

Pseudonymous

Describes using identifiers in a network that can be resolved and tracked, but not necessarily linked to a known party.
More: Network

Public Blockchain

A Blockchain where anyone can participate in consensus or execute transactions without permission or special access.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Consensus

Public Key

Public half of a key pair, an alphanumeric string used to encrypt data in public key cryptography.
More: Cryptography, Public Key, Key Pair

Public Network

Live implementation of a Blockchain network, featuring real transactions that carry real-world value.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Network

Q


QR Code

A graphical method to store URLs, mnemonics, addresses, or other strings as a type of two-dimensional barcode. Readable by cameras that interpret and act on the data.
More: Mnemonic, Address

Quorom

Desired network state in a consensus mechanism where the necessary number of nodes are in agreement on the state of the Blockchain and ledger.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Blockchain, Network, Ledger, Node

R


Radians

Proof-of-Concept Blockchain developed within the ARK Grants Program to showcase the use case of IoT using ARK technology.
More: ARK Grants Program, Proof-of-Concept, Blockchain, Use Case

Recovery Phrase

Method, usually represented as a mnemonic, that restores balances and access to funds in a wallet application. Usually specific to that application and does not play a role in the Blockchain itself.
More: Blockchain, Mnemonic, Wallet

Registered Delegate Address

A wallet address that has executed a specail transaction to register a Delegate name
More: Wallet Address, Transaction, Delegate

Relay Node

In ARK DPoS, a node that maintains a copy of the ledger, relays transactions to Delegate Nodes, and provides API access, but does not participate in coin minting or transaction confirmation.
More: Transaction, Delegate, Ledger, Coin, DPoS, Node

Reorg

Informal term for reorganization.
More: Reorganization

Reorganization

In Blockchain, an event that occurs when the ledger is rearranged via rollback or some takeover in the consensus mechanism. Occurs during certain types of attacks.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Blockchain, Rollback, Ledger

Rich List

List of wallet addresses with the highest balances in a Blockchain network.
More: Wallet Address, Blockchain, Network

Rollback

Event that takes place when confirmed transactions and blocks return to the mempool as unconfirmed transactions. Usually follows with replaying the transactions to restore the ledger.
More: Transaction, Mempool, Ledger

Round

One complete runthrough in Delegated Proof-of-Stake where each Delegate has had a turn to generate a new block. The total length of time is determined by DelegateCount*BlockTime.
More: Delegated Proof-of-Stake, Delegate

S


Schnorr Signatures

Digital signature scheme known for its simplicity, among the first whose security is based on the intractability of certain discrete logarithm problems.

SDK

See Software Development Kit.
More: Software Development Kit

Second Passphrase

Additional mnemonic used for increasing the security of a wallet address in ARK-based networks. Adds an additional twelve words to the existing twelve word mnemonic for an address.
More: Wallet Address, Mnemonic, Address, Network

Second Singature Registration

Transaction type that allows for a second passphrase to be added to the existing passphrase of a wallet address.
More: Second Passphrase, Wallet Address, Transaction, Passphrase

Seed Peers

Initial node-servers that initially start up a Blockchain.
More: Blockchain, Node

Seed Phrase

See mnemonic.
More: Mnemonic

Signatory

Participant of a Multisignature scheme. Represented by a wallet address.
More: Multisignature, Wallet Address

Simple Payment Verification

System that enables lite clients to verify that a transaction has been included in a ledger.
More: Lite Client, Transaction, Ledger

SmartBridge

Brand name of the ARK interoperability protocol.
More: Interoperability, Protocol

Snapshot

A saved state of the ledger that can be used during rollbacks. Managed by ARK Snapshot Manager.
More: ARK Snapshot Manager, Rollback, Ledger

Soft Fork

A backwards-compatible protocol upgrade to a Blockchain network that does not result in a hard fork.
More: Blockchain, Hard Fork, Protocol, Network

Software Development Kit

Library of functions available for use in an application. Can be used to interface with ARK API using a variety of popular programming languages including TypeScript, PHP, Java, Go, Python, and C++.
More: ARK API

Software Fork

A split in the codebase of software, where a new copy is created that deviates from the previous copy.
More: Codebase

Software Wallet

See desktop wallet, mobile wallet and web wallet.
More: Desktop Wallet, Mobile Wallet, Web Wallet

Sovereign Blockchain

Standalone Blockchain that does not rely on any other network to function.
More: Blockchain, Network

SPV

See Simple Payment Verification.
More: Simple Payment Verification

Standby Delegate

In ARK DPoS, a Delegate that does not have sufficient Voting Power to participate in the consensus mechanism.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Voting Power, Delegate, DPoS

Static Fees

Fee structure in which the network has one unchanging fee to execute a transaction. Fees do not rise and fall based on network activity, as they do with Dynamic Fees.
More: Dynamic Fees, Transaction, Network, Fee

Supply Growth Rate

See inflation.
More: Inflation

Sybil Attack

Attack vector where relay nodes run by bad actors overpower relay nodes aiming to secure the network.
More: Attack Vector, Relay Node, Bad Actor, Network

T


Technology Stack

Collection of frameworks, modules, applications, and libraries.
More: Framework, Module

Tendermint

BFT-based PoS protocol that improves finality for PoS consensus mechanisms.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Finality, Protocol, BFT, PoS

Test Network

A single-node implentation of Blockchain technology that simulates the consensus mechanism of a live multi-node network.
More: Consensus Mechanism, Blockchain, Network, Node

Testnet

Informal term for Test Network.
More: Test Network

TGE

See Token Generation Event.
More: Token Generation Event

Throughput

Quantity of transactions that can be confirmed in either one block or one second, depending on context.
More: Transaction

Ticker Symbol

Abbreviated cryptoasset name used in a block explorer or an exchange’s user interface.
More: Block Explorer, Cryptoasset

Tier 0

Deprecated term for ARK Grants Program.
More: ARK Grants Program

Timelock

See Hashed Time Lock Contract.
More: Hash

Token

Cryptoasset that operates on an underlying Blockchain network that already contains its own native cryptoasset.
More: Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Network

Token Generation Event

When launching a coin or token, refers to the act of creating a Genesis Block and initial supply.
More: Initial Supply, Genesis Block, Token, Coin

Tokenization

Representing owership of an asset through tokens or coins on a Blockchain.
More: Blockchain, Token, Coin

Tokenomics

Economic model for a cryptoasset that outlines its cases for being used in a Blockchain network.
More: Cryptoasset, Blockchain, Network

Total Supply

Total amount of coins or tokens currently existing on the network, including any supply held in genesis address or other pre-circulation fund. Does not include any future generated supply.
More: Genesis Address, Network, Token, Coin

Transaction

An exchange of data or value between Blockchain addresses or networks.
More: Blockchain, Address, Network

Transaction Fee

Payment made to node operators when a user executes a transaction on a Blockchain network.
More: Node Operator, Transaction, Blockchain, Network

Transaction ID

Alphanumeric identifier unique to a Blockchain network for a specific transaction.
More: Transaction, Blockchain, Network

Transaction Pool

See mempool.
More: Mempool

Two-Factor Authentication

An additional method to authenticate accounts on products such as Deployer and MarketSquare. This optional method uses your mobile device to confirm each successful login attempt.
More: MarketSquare, Deployer, Account

TX

See transaction.
More: Transaction

TXID

See Transaction ID.
More: Transaction ID

U


Unvote

In ARK DPoS, transaction type that unassigns Voting Power that has been previously assigned to a Delegate with a Vote transaction.
More: Voting Power, Transaction, Delegate, DPoS, Vote

Use Case

Specific reason for implementing Blockchain technology. May also apply to a specific industry.
More: Blockchain

V


Validate

Act of confirming a block by an Active Delegate and including it in the ledger.
More: Active Delegate, Ledger

Validator

See Active Delegate.
More: Active Delegate

Vanity Address

Specialized wallet address that contains some recognizable word or phrase as a part of the address itself.
More: Wallet Address, Address

Vendor Field

A memo text field used on the ARK Public Network for storing additional data on the ledger. Commands, code, transaction details, or other strings can be stored.
More: ARK Public Network, Transaction, Ledger

Virtual Private Server

A virtual machine running in the Cloud that behaves just like a bare metal server, usually offered as a service with monthly costs that vary based on specifications and bandwidth.

Vote

In ARK DPoS, transaction type that assigns Vote Weight to a Delegate.
More: Transaction, Vote Weight, Delegate, DPoS

Vote Weight

See Voting Power.
More: Voting Power

Voter

In ARK DPoS, wallet address that has executed a Vote transaction.
More: Wallet Address, Transaction, DPoS, Vote

Voting Power

In ARK DPoS, quantifiable amount of influence that a voter could assign to a Delegate, where for every 1 ARK stored in the address, 1 Voting Power is granted.
More: Voting Power, Delegate, Address, Voter, DPoS

VPS

See Virtual Private Server.
More: Virtual Private Server

W


Wallet

Software application, hardware device, or non-electronic method for managing and storing a cryptoasset.
More: Cryptoasset

Wallet Address

Sequence of alphanumeric characters associated with a location on a Blockchain to store coins, tokens, files, or other value or data.
More: Blockchain, Token, Coin

Wallet Import Format

Schema used to standardize wallet address data for importing into a wallet application.
More: Wallet Address, Wallet

Watch-Only Address

An address that is viewable in a wallet application, where the mnemonic or private key is not stored. Only the balance and transaction history is available, and transactions cannot be executed.
More: Private Key, Transaction, Mnemonic, Address, Wallet

Web Wallet

Web application used to manage a cryptoasset from within a browser window.
More: Cryptoasset

Webhook

A listener that can be deployed within ARK Core to interface with external web services or clients.
More: ARK Core

Whitepaper

See ARK Whitepaper.
More: ARK Whitepaper

WIF

See Wallet Import Format.
More: Wallet Import Format

2020 © ARK.io | All rights reserved An ARK.io Product